I got to ~/mydroid/$ make and then let it compile last night. This morning, there was an error which is posted on this site: http://www.androidiani.com/forum/144139-post15.html
Basically, it was "libgps.so, not found"
The following blog post has great instructions and a fix for this error, so I followed his directions from that point on. Thank you, Al Sutton!
I flashed and rebooted the phone and it worked!
1. From the top of the source tree go to out/target/product/passion/
2. Run “sudo fastboot flash system system.img”
3. Then run “sudo fastboot flash boot boot.img”
4. Then run “sudo fastboot flash recovery recovery.img”
5. Then run “sudo fastboot flash userdata userdata.img”
6. Then run “sudo fastboot reboot”
The phone's display looks right again and it responds to the buttons again! :D I have a working compiled OS to work with now!